Most of the data in DDR will be qualitative in nature and best analyzed using a thematic approach such as Clarke and Braun’s 6-step process illustrated below:
The 6-phase coding framework for thematic analysis will be used to identify themes and patterns in the data (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The phases are:
For survey and other numeric data, descriptive statistics can be generated using EXCEL or SPSS.
Clarke, V. & Braun, V. (2013) Teaching thematic analysis: Overcoming challenges and developing strategies for effective learning. The Psychologist, 26(2), 120-123
Merriam and Tysdale (2016) is considered a seminal source for qualitative methodology. Generic design is discussed on pages 23 to 25.
Merriam, S. & Tysdale, E. (2016). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation(4th ed). Jossey-Bass.
Elliott and Timulak (2021) provide a current summary of descriptive design.
Elliott, R. & Timulak, L. (2021). Descriptive-interpretive qualitative research; A generic approach. American Psychological Association. https://soi.org/10.1037/0000224-000
Kalke (2014) provides overview of generic design including the criticisms. The update, in 2018, reaffirms the 2014 source.
Kalke, R. (2014). Generic qualitative approaches: Pitfalls and benefits of methodological mixology. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 13, 37-52. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/160940691401300119
Kalke, R., (2018). Reflection/commentary on a past article” Generic qualitative approaches; Pitfalls and benefits of methodological mixology. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1609406918788193
Descriptive Design has been described in the qualitative research literature since the early 2000’s. Prior to that, it was not considered a non-categorial design lacking in rigor. The following articles address those criticisms and provide insight into how to best design a study using a descriptive approach.
Caelli, K., Ray, L., & Mill, J. (2003). Clear as mud: Towards a greater clarity in generic qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(2), 1 – 23. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/160940690300200201
Percy, W., Kostere, K., & Kostere, S. (2015). Generic qualitative research in psychology. The Qualitative Report, 20(2), 76-85. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/tqr/vol20/iss2/7/
Sandelowski, M. (2000). Focus on research methods-Whatever happened to qualitative description? Research in Nursing and Health, 23(4), 334-340. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.461.4974&rep=rep1&type=pdf