**Center for Teaching and Learning. (2019, August).***Downloading IBM SPSS Statistics*. National University.**As part of your registration for this course, NU provides access to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Take time to ensure your access to SPSS so that you can troubleshoot problems now. If you have difficulty accessing SPSS, contact the NU IT support desk (servicedesk@nu.edu). Once you have access to SPSS, any questions should be addressed to your instructor.****Academic Success Center (ASC). (2020). Levels of measurement. National University.****This page from the ASC offers additional explanation via text, graphic, and video to support your understanding of levels of measurement.**

**Academic Success Center (ASC). (2020).***Statistics resources*. National University.**This LibGuide includes all of the statistics resources curated by NU's Academic Success Center. Use the headings on the left side of this ASC page to navigate to your particular area of need.****Presenting Statistics in Text****This page from the ASC offers support on how to use appropriately the different elements of statistics within text that you write.****P Value**Caprazo, R. M., & Yetkiner, Z. E. (2012). p Value. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.),*Encyclopedia of research design*(pp. 1144-1148). SAGE.

**The p-values indicate the probability of obtaining the difference observed in a random sample if the null hypothesis is true.****Hypothesis testing****Coleman, J. S. (2018). Hypothesis testing. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 803-804). SAGE.****Hypothesis testing is the main method used in statistics to examine statistical inference. The researcher set a hypothesis (supposition) about a population parameter. In statistics, the hypothesis that is always tested is the null hypothesis.****Levels of measurement****Coleman, J. S. (2018). Levels of measurement. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 969). SAGE.****The way things are measured is very critical in statistics. Each method has different qualities and characteristics. The type of statistical analysis chosen depends on these characteristics.****SPSS.****Gordon, M., & Courtney, R. (2018). SPSS. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1577-1583). SAGE.**

This resource presents an introduction to the basic commands available in SPSS. It presents the description of the different windows found in the software, as well as instructions to conduct basic analyses.**Sample****Huck, S. W., Beavers, A. S., & Esquivel, S. (2012). Sample. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.),***Encyclopedia of research design*(pp. 1295-1299). SAGE.

This chapter discusses the characteristics of the samples. It defines what a sample is and the use of samples in research to make inferences about a population.**Ordinal-level of measurement****Ingram, P. B., & Ternes, M. S. (2018). Ordinal-level of measurement. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1185). SAGE. This resource presents the definition and characteristics of ordinal-level measurements. In this resource, you will find the instances where it is appropriate to use this level of measurement.****Population****Litt, A. R. (2010). Population. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 1053). SAGE.**

Statistics are used to make inferences about a population. The population is the entire collection of individuals that the researcher intends to examine.**Parameters.****Mitra. A. (2012). Parameters. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.),***Encyclopedia of research design*(pp. 998-999). SAGE.

In these pages, you will find the definition of a parameter. It is important for you to understand the difference between a parameter and a statistic. The parameter is a characteristic of the population, while a statistic is a characteristic of a sample.**Nominal-level measurement****Prion, S. (2018). Nominal-level measurement. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1149). SAGE.**

This resource presents the definition and characteristics of nominal level measurements. In this resource, you will find the instances where it is appropriate to use this level of measurement.**Statistic****Spatz, C. (2012). Statistic. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 1442). SAGE.**

In these pages, you will find the definition of a statistic. It is important for you to understand the difference between a parameter and a statistic. The parameter is a characteristic of the population, while a statistic is a characteristic of a sample.**Scientific method****Staddon, J. E. (2018). Scientific method. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1473-1477). SAGE.**

This chapter presents the relationship between the scientific method and how statistics are used to examine and analyze data to answer research questions. Moreover, these research questions are stated as hypotheses. These hypotheses include the null and the alternative hypothesis. Statistics test for the accuracy of the null hypothesis, which is the one that states that no differences exist between the groups or no relationship between the variables.**Interval-level of measurement****Sudweeks, R. R. (2018). Interval-level of measurement. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (p. 871). SAGE.**

This resource presents the definition and characteristics of interval-level measurements. In this resource, you will find the instances where it is appropriate to use this level of measurement.

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