**SPSS Confidence Scores.sav****This file is the same data file you used in the Week 1 assignment and includes the same data presented in Table 2 within this week’s assignment instructions.**

**Alpha level.****Kim, H. W. (2018). Alpha level. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),***The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 65-66). SAGE.

The alpha level is chosen a priori as a level (typically .05) used to reject or not reject the null hypothesis, and this value is compared to*p*- value obtained from the statistical analysis. This chapter defines and discusses the concepts related to the alpha level.**Assessing distribution shape: Normality, skewness, and kurtosis****Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Assessing distribution shape: Normality, skewness, and kurtosis (pp. 139 - 145). In Performing data analysis using IBM SPSS. Wiley & Sons.**

This source describes the procedures to examine for normality using SPSS. Furthermore, it provides explanations of the different outputs obtained in the analysis.**Explore****Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Explore (pp. 71-76). In Performing data analysis using IBM SPSS. Wiley & Sons.**

This source describes the procedures to examine for normality using the explore tab in SPSS. Furthermore, it provides explanations of the different outputs obtained in the analysis.**Hypothesis testing.****Coleman, J. S. (2018). Hypothesis testing. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 803-804). SAGE.**

This resource was introduced in a previous week. Hypotheses are formed in inferential statistics and used to make decisions about the population using a sample. This source provides discussion regarding the decisions that are made based on hypothesis testing.**Robust statistics****Blaine, B. E. (2018). Robust statistics. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1435-1436). SAGE.**

This source defines and discusses the concept of robust statistics. These are procedures for which, in spite of a violation to the assumptions in statistics, the results can still be accepted as accurate results.**Kolmogorov-Smirnov test****Thombs, L. (2018). Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 931-932). SAGE.**

This source provides a description of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, a test that is used to examine the assumption of normality.**Levene’s homogeneity of variance test.****Chen, Y. H., Wang, Y., & Kromrey, J. (2018). Levene’s homogeneity of variance test. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),***The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 970-972). SAGE.

The Levene’s test is a test to examine the assumption of homogeneity of variance. This assumption is used in the independent*t*- test analysis and the analysis of variance.**Meeting the homogeneity of variance****Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Meeting the homogeneity of variance (pp. 464 - 469). In Performing data analysis using IBM SPSS. Wiley & Sons.**

This source describes the procedures to examine for the assumption of homogeneity of variance using SPSS. Furthermore, it provides explanations of the different outputs obtained in the analysis.**Normal distribution.****Nicol, A. A. M. (2022). Normal distribution. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),***The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1088-1091). SAGE..*p*Value**Kim, H. W. (2018).***p*Value. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1195-1198). SAGE.

The*p*- value is the probability value that is used in conjunction with the concept of significance. This chapter discusses the different uses of the*p*- value.**Scientific method****Staddon, J. E. (2018). Scientific method. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1473-1477). SAGE.**

This chapter presents the relationship between the scientific method and how statistics are used to examine and analyze data to answer research questions. Moreover, these research questions are stated as hypotheses. These hypotheses include the null and the alternative hypothesis. Statistics test for the accuracy of the null hypothesis, which is the one that states that no differences exist between the groups or no relationship between the variables.**Significance****Harlow, L. (2018). Significance. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1514-1516). SAGE.**

The author of these pages presents the concept of significance in statistics. Significance indicates the probability of an event (e.g., the difference between two groups) happening by chance—or that true differences exist.**Type I error****Hannon, B. (2018). Type I error. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),***The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1741-1743). SAGE.

Type I error in hypothesis testing occurs when the null hypothesis is equivocally rejected. In other words, assuming that significant differences exist, when in fact they don’t exist.**Type II error.****Liu, X.S. (2018). Type II error. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),***The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1743-1745). SAGE.

As you learned from this resource in a previous week, Type II error in hypothesis testing occurs when the null hypothesis is equivocally not rejected—in other words, assuming that significant differences do not exist, when they do in fact exist.

**Supplemental Resources**

**ASC Statistics Resources****Academic Success Center (ASC). (2020).***Statistics resources*. Northcentral University.

This LibGuide includes all of the statistics resources curated by NU's Academic Success Center. Use the headings on the left side of this ASC page to navigate to your particular area of need.**Presenting Statistics in Text****This page from the ASC offers support on how to use appropriately the different elements of statistics within text that you write.**

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