J.R. Meloy & J. Hoffman (Eds.). (2021). International handbook of threat assessment (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.
Read Chapter 3: Warning Behaviors This chapter identifies the eight proximal warning behaviors for targeted violence. Students will learn about the reliability and validity of assessing for these behaviors.
Behavioral Analysis Unit. (2017). Making Prevention a Reality: Identifying, Assessing, and Managing the Threat of Targeted Attacks. Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice. Read Chapter 3: Assessment: Analysis for Guiding Management (pp. 21-49)
This source defines and discusses threat enhancers for targeted violence.
Reid Meloy, J. (2015, August). The Warning behavior of identification: Discerning threats for targeted or intended violence. Psychology Today. This source provides an easy-to-read brief summary of the importance of identifying warning behaviors in the threat assessment process.
Meloy, J.R., Hoffman, J., Roshdi, K., & Guldimann, A. (2014). Some warning behaviors discriminate between school shooters and other students of concern. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 1(3), 203-211. This article helps students learn which warning behaviors have been found to discriminate between non-attackers and attackers in the school shooter population.
Meloy, J.R., Mohandie, K., Knoll, J.L., & Hoffmann, J. (2015). The concept of identification in threat assessment. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 33(2-3), 213-237. This article explores the warning behavior of identification in depth. Students will learn more about this warning behavior and how it often precedes patterns of accelerating risk.
Meloy et al. (2019). Some TRAP-18 indicators discriminate between terrorist attackers and other subjects of national security concern. Journal of Threat Assessment and Management, 6(2), 93-110. This article helps students learn which warning behaviors have been found to discriminate between non-attackers and attackers in the terrorist population.