**Using Statistics in the Social and Health Sciences with SPSS and Excel**Abbott, M. (2017).*Using statistics in the social health sciences with SPSS and Excel.*Wiley & Sons.

**This is the first main text reading for this week. These chapters (Ch. 4-6) discuss the basic of hypothesis testing. **

**IBM SPSS Essentials: Managing and Analyzing Social Sciences Data**Kulas, J., Roji, R., & Smith, A. (2021).*IBM SPSS essentials: Managing and analyzing Social Sciences data.*John Wiley & Sons Inc.

**This is the second main text reading for this week. These chapters (Ch. 7-8) discuss the basic of hypothesis testing and descriptive statistics. **

**ConfidenceScores.sav****This file is the same data file you used in the Week 1 assignment and includes the same data presented in Table 2 within this week’s assignment instructions.**

**Laerd Statistics**Laerd Statistics. (2020).*Test that your data meets important assumptions.*Lund Research Ltd.

**Laerd is a great statistics site and this page discusses the basic inferential test assumptions.****Alpha Level**Kim, H. W. (2018). Alpha level. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 65-66). SAGE.

**The alpha level is chosen***a priori*as a level used to reject or not reject the null hypothesis, and this value is compared to p - value obtained from the statistical analysis. This chapter defines and discusses the concepts related to the alpha level.**Assessing Distribution Shape: Normality, Skewness, and Kurtosis**Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Assessing distribution shape: Normality, skewness, and kurtosis. In*Performing data analysis using IBM SPSS*(pp. 139-145). Wiley & Sons.

**This source describes the procedures to examine for normality using SPSS. Furthermore, it provides explanations of the different outputs obtained in the analysis.****Explore**Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Explore. In*Performing data analysis using IBM SPSS*(pp. 71-76). Wiley & Sons.

**This source describes the procedures to examine for normality using the***Explore*tab in SPSS. Furthermore, it provides explanations of the different outputs obtained in the analysis.**Hypothesis Testing**Coleman, J. S. (2018). Hypothesis testing. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 803-804). SAGE.

**Hypothesis testing is the main method used in statistics to examine statistical inference. The researcher sets a hypothesis (supposition) about a population parameter. In statistics, the hypothesis that is always tested is the null hypothesis.****Robust Statistics**Blaine, B. E. (2018). Robust statistics. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1435-1436). SAGE.

**This source defines and discusses the concept of robust statistics. These are procedures for which, in spite of a violation of the assumptions in statistics, the results can still be accepted as accurate results.****Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test**Thombs, L. (2018). Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 931-932). SAGE.

**This source provides a description of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, a test that is used to examine the assumption of normality.****Levene's Homogeneity of Variance Test**Chen, Y. H., Wang, Y., & Kromrey, J. (2018). Levene’s homogeneity of variance test. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 970-972). SAGE.

**The Levene’s test is a test to examine the assumption of homogeneity of variance. This assumption is used in the independent t - test analysis and the analysis of variance.****Meeting the Homogeneity of Variance**Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G. C., & Guarino, A. J. (2013). Meeting the homogeneity of variance. In*Performing data analysis using IBM SPSS*(pp. 464-469). Wiley & Sons.

**This source describes the procedures to examine for the assumption of homogeneity of variance using SPSS. Furthermore, it provides explanations of the different outputs obtained in the analysis.****Normal Distribution**Musselwhite, D., & Wesolowski, B. (2018). Normal distribution. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1155-1157). SAGE.

**The normal distribution represents the distribution of scores in a sample that is obtained from a population. While the majority of scores are in the middle of the distribution, as scores move away from the middle, the frequencies decrease.****p Value**Kim, H. W. (2018). p Value. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1195-1198). SAGE.

**The***p*- value is the probability value that is used in conjunction with the concept of significance. This chapter discusses the different uses of the*p*- value.**Scientific Method**Staddon, J. E. R. (2018). Scientific method. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1473-1477). SAGE.

**This resource discusses the concepts of the scientific method. Statistical reasoning uses several steps that are part of the scientific method. In this reading, you will also learn about the inductive and deductive methods of reasoning.****Significance**Harlow, L. (2018). Significance. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1514-1516). SAGE.

**The author of these pages presents the concept of significance in statistics. Significance indicates the probability of an event (e.g., the difference between two groups) happening by chance—or that true differences exist.****Type I Error**Hannon, B. (2018). Type I Error. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1741-1743). SAGE.

**This reference discusses the error that occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected and it should not have been rejected. This error is known as a Type I error.****Type II Error**Liu, S.L. (2018). Type II error. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),*The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1743-1745). SAGE.

**This reference discusses the error occurred when the null hypothesis was not rejected and it should have been rejected. This error is known as a Type II error.**

**ASC Statistics Resources**Academic Success Center (ASC). (2024).*Statistics resources.*Northcentral University.

**This page in the ASC includes all of the statistics resources curated by NU's Academic Success Center. Use the headings on the left side of this ASC page to navigate to your particular area of need.****APA Formatting Guide for Statistics**American Psychological Association. (2022).*American Psychological Association Style (7th ed.) numbers and statistics guide.*American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

**This resource gives a summary of how to format statistics in APA 7th edition formatting.****Presenting Statistics in Text**Academic Success Center (ASC). (2024).*Presenting statistics in text.*Northcentral University.

**This page from the ASC offers support on how to use appropriately the different elements of statistics within text for reports, papers, assignments, etc.**

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