Lexis Advance uses Shepard's Signal Indicators to provide context about point of law authority. Legal standing and authority can change over time, and it is important to verify that the points of law within cases are still valid, or "good law." Shepard's Reports provide a comprehensive review of cases, statutes, secondary sources and annotations that cite the case's authority and validate the case's point of law.
Shepard's Signal Indicators and Meanings
Red Stop Sign Symbol - Warning: Negative Treatment Indicated
This symbol indicates that citing references contain strong negative history or treatment. For example, the case may be overruled or reversed.
Red Exclamation Point - Warning: Negative Treatment Indicated for Statute.
This symbol indicates that the citing references in the case contain strong negative treatment. For example, the section may have been to be unconstitutional or void.
Questioned - Validity Questioned by Citing References
This symbol indicates that the citing references contain treatment that questions the continuing validity or precedential value of the case due to intervening circumstances. These circumstances also include judicial or legislative overruling.
Yellow Triangle - Caution: Possible Negative Treatment
This symbol indicates that the citing references of the case contain history or treatment that may have a negative impact.
This symbol indicates that citing references in the case has history or treatment that positively impacts the case. For example, the case has been affirmed or followed by the citing reference.
Blue 'A' - Citing References with Analysis Available
This symbol indicates that citing references contain treatment that is neither positive nor negative. For example, the citing reference explained a section of the case.
Blue 'I' - Citation Information Available
This symbol indicates that citing references are available, but these references do not have a history or treatment analysis for the case.
To view the treatment of a case, click on the Shepardize this document link under the Shepard's® box located on the right panel. This will provide a comprehensive list of treatment, if available.
Ballentine's Law Dictionary contains over 40,000 definitions of legal term "based on the actual construction of those terms by courts of last resort, with each case cited to the page on which the definition appears."
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