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IEG-7400 v1

Globalization and International Education Policy

Lesson 1 Resources

Globalization and Internationalization of the Education Management

Andone, L. (2021).  Globalization and internationalization of the education management.  Annals of University of Oradea, Economic Science Series, 30(2), 336-343. 

In this article, the author explores the impact that globalization has had on higher education.  According to the author, education organizations have become more receptive to the forces of the international market due to the cross-border movement not only of students, professors and researchers in universities but also by the extent of international cooperation, through the development of branches and extensions of universities in countries other than the host country of the institution. The article provides information about how the level of research funding in universities is an important factor in motivating the internationalization of higher education.  The idea that World Bank officials tend to see strengthening higher education as a key strategy for poverty reduction is discussed.

Cohesion, COVID-19 and Contemporary Challenges to Globalization

Delios, A., Perchthold, G., & Capri, A. (2021). Cohesion, COVID-19 and contemporary challenges to globalization. Journal of World Business, 56(3).

The authors contend that the pandemic accelerated the rate at which the globalization consensus is being defied. To better understand the implications of this defiance, the research focuses on the people, organizations, and international organizations that defy the cohesion needed to keep globalization moving forward. People and organizations create cohesive forces that can link and constrain the differences that are encountered when people and organizations move across international borders. Also, the nature of international competition, particularly as connected to the level of active involvement by state actors, can lead to fractures that reduce cohesion across polities and societies.

Development of Education in the Context of the Main Challenges of Globalization Colonized from Within

Pearson, N. O. (2022). Colonized from Within. Bloomberg Businessweek, 4733, 48–55. 

The article focuses on international schools that have adopted a Western-style of education, have a preference for White teachers, and with legacies of colonialism and idealism. Information is provided about the rankings of international schools, the native English speaker rule and local hire contract practices in hiring teachers, and the expatriate and local hires system of employment contracts. It presents the case of racial diversity in the International School of Geneva. 

Educational Change as Social Movement: An Emerging Paradigm from the Global South

Rincón-Gallardo, S. (2020). Educational change as social movement: An emerging paradigm from the Global South. Journal of Educational Change, 21(3), 467–477.

This article advances the idea of social movement and a new way to think about and pursue educational change. It contains information about scientific management, the paradigm that has shaped how schools and educational systems have been understood and run for over a century, since the creation of compulsory schooling. Drawing on some examples of radical and widespread pedagogical change in the Global South, the author proposes the notion of social movement as an alternative paradigm with a fighting chance to override scientific management as the dominant paradigm for educational change. The article concludes with the possibilities for a new paradigm in shaping education in developed nations.

The Maker Movement: A Global Movement for Educational Change

Sang, W., & Simpson, A. (2019). The maker movement: A global movement for educational change. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 17, 65–83.  

The article provides the results of a study that was designed to understand the maker movement from the perspective of frame analysis and collective action frames. Based on 33 maker projects out of China, Europe, and the USA, their research uses diagnostic and prognostic frames to analyze the problems related to makerspaces and how makers solve these problems. One will see how an educational idea was implemented differently across developed nations. The article helps to explain how deeply rooted education change is in local communities as they integrate local expectations with their ideal of making; consequently, the education change of making depends on communities to solve internal problems. Through the research, one can see how the makers proactively changed the mindset of what constitutes and defines making of other actors (e.g. public). Discussion focuses on the roles of governments and the inequity of resource mobilization in terms of STEM learning in the movement.  This article is an example of how community members and organizations influence education change.

Transnational Students and Education Change

Skerrett, A. (2020).  Transnational students and education change.  Journal of Educational Change, 21(3), 499-509. 

This article focuses on educational issues introduced by the uprising of transnational students in global educational systems. Topics of diversity and globalization in need of greater attention are presented and a conceptual and empirically-based framework—a transnationally-inclusive approach to literacy education – is presented. The article concludes with some considerations of how the field of educational change is uniquely poised to generate research, theory, and practice that can promote productive change pertaining to transnational students and education.

 District Agency in Implementing Instructional Reform: A Comparative Case Study of Global Education

Tichnor-Wagner, A. (2019). District agency in implementing instructional reform: A comparative case study of global education. Journal of Educational Change, 20(4), 495–525. 

As instructional reforms are shifting focus from reading and math achievement towards social–emotional learning and challenging coursework that prepares students for college, careers, and citizenship, this study addresses how leaders in two school districts actively served as mid-level implementers of global education, an instructional reform that extends teaching and learning beyond traditionally tested subject areas. This qualitative comparative case study of global education implementation in two school districts found that leaders in both districts strategically supported global education implementation by generating will, building capacity, and re-orienting the organization, but differed in specific strategies they deployed based upon preferences for top-down or top-and-bottom approaches to systems change. Common strategies found in both cases point to specific ways that district leaders can exert agency in supporting teaching and learning that prepares students with the twenty-first century skills needed to thrive in a pluralistic, interconnected world, and raises new questions about which district-level implementation approaches are most effective in enacting change in schools and classrooms. 

Power, Politics, and Education: Canadian Universities and International Education in an Era of New Geopolitics

Trilokekar, R. D., El Masri, A., & El MasryY, H. (2020). Power, politics, and education: Canadian universities and international education in an era of new geopolitics. Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 50(3), 79–95. 

This article focuses on the recent political spars between Canada and Saudi Arabia as well as China and their impact on Canadian universities. It asks three questions: (1) What key issues did Canada’s political strains with Saudi Arabia and China raise for Canadian universities’ international education (IE) initiatives, and what issues were absent? (2) What do these key issues suggest about Canada’s approaches to IE in an era of new geopolitics? and (3) What implications can be drawn from these cases about Canadian university-government relations in the context of new geopolitics? Three dominant themes are identified and analyzed, each vividly illustrating the close ties between global politics, government foreign policy, and IE within Canadian Universities.  Using the theoretical framework of soft power, the paper focuses on the limitations and short-sightedness of Canada’s approach to IE as soft power in this era of new geopolitics and concludes with three recommendations for Canada.

Local Insights from the Vietnamese Education System: The Impacts of Imperialism, Colonialism, and Neo-Liberalism of Globalization

Trinh, A. N. (2018). Local insights from the Vietnamese Education System: The impacts of imperialism, colonialism, and neo-liberalism of globalization. International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 17(3), 67–79.

The information in this article fills a gap in the literature by examining how local dimensions of education have been demonstrated and fostered in the Vietnamese education system under the different impacts of imperialism, colonialism, and the neo-liberalism of globalization before and after 1986.  Cheng's multiple theories of fostering local knowledge in globalized education were employed to discuss local dimensions and associated challenges in education.

Liberating education and the challenges of globalization and technology

Valdez, A. A., & Avoseh, M. B. M. (2018). Liberating education and the challenges of globalization and technology. Commission for International Adult Education. 

Globalization and technology have brought tremendous benefits to humanity and have enhanced the idea of life more abundant. While the advantages of globalization and technology are evident in enhancing the good life, their challenges are equally evident. The framework for this research is based on Freire's idea of liberating education that revisits the student-teacher relationships. It highlights challenges and opportunities for individual and social transformation, and social justice despite the challenges of globalization and of rapid technological innovations originating in the United States.

Education Reforms Worldwide: Incoming Tide for Comparative and International Education

Wolhuter, C., & Bulgarian Comparative Education Society (BCES). (2020). Education reforms worldwide: Incoming tide for Comparative and International Education. Bulgarian Comparative Education Society. 

The contents of this article map the tide of education reforms worldwide and spell out the implications for the field of Comparative and International Education-- the field of scholarship tasked with assessing and guiding the global education project. In the field the notion of a Global Education Reform Movement (GERM) has gained attention and support. In this article, the deficiencies of global education are identified; these include its non-exhaustiveness, its lack of a theoretical underpinning, and its lack of a normative dimension. The most salient societal trends of the twenty-first century world are enumerated, as well as changed education objectives, educational management and administration, teachers and students, and curricula.