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IEG-7400 v1

Globalization and International Education Policy

Lesson 3 Resources

Elementary Education: Global Perspectives, Challenges and Issues of the 21st Century

Erik Jon Byker. (2020). Elementary education: Global perspectives, challenges and issues of the 21st century, Nova, pp.

Elementary education provides the foundation for a learned and literate global citizenry. To understand the goals of elementary education it is important to have a comparative and international lens.  This book describes and explains the perspectives, challenges, and issues related to elementary education in the twenty-first century global age. The content of the book's chapters represents several countries across the globe including India, Indonesia, Greece, Mexico, the Philippines, South Africa, Spain, and the United States. The content section explores elementary education subject matter—largely in the field of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)—that will continue to be eminent throughout the twenty-first century.  The book provides internationally minded educators, government leaders, parents, practitioners, and policymakers insight into the critical role of elementary education in preparing children for our dynamic, interconnected, and globalized world.

Between-School Stratification of Academic Curricular Offerings in Upper Secondary Education: School Decision-Making, Curriculum Policy Context, and the Educational Marketplace

Perry, L., Lubienski, C. (2020). Between-school stratification of academic curricular offerings in upper secondary education: School decision-making, curriculum policy context, and the educational marketplace.  Oxford Review of Education, 46(5), 582-600.

This study examines the factors that shape secondary schools' offerings of academic curricula. While academic curricula provide many benefits to individuals and the larger society, inequalities in opportunities to study these subjects may exist between schools, even in comprehensive secondary education systems. In this study, all school leaders reported that curricular offerings are based on student choice and that subjects with sufficient demand are financially sustainable. But regardless of student choices, some schools offered academic curricula to maintain their reputation and competitive advantage in the education marketplace. School leaders of low socioeconomic public schools reported the most resource constraints in offering academic curricula, and all school leaders acknowledged systemic constraints related to the large number of curricula that could be offered. The findings highlight how marketization dynamics combine with curriculum policies to shape schools' curricular offerings in ways that provide unequal access for different types of students.

The Determinant Factors of School Organizational Change in Madura, East Java, Indonesia
Rozikin, M., Muslim, A. Q., & Pratama, B. I. (2021). The determinant factors of school organizational change in Madura, East Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 10(1), 308–316.

Organizational change is a phenomenon that must be faced and carried out by every individual in the organization to achieve organizational goals. Embodiments of organizational change often occur not because it suits the needs of the organization but because of personal interests and power. This study aimed to determine the main factors that can create change, namely the relationship of leadership and political pressure of school principals that influence organizational change in the Public Secondary School in Madura, East Java, Indonesia. The results showed that the leadership and political pressure of regional heads were the main factors of organizational change at SMPN (Public Secondary School) in Madura, East Java. Organizational change depends very much on the role of the political pressure of the regional head through education policy, as well as the role of the principal's leadership in running the wheels of the organization so that the school's goals can be achieved. This study also showed that the principal's leadership as an intermediary variable from political pressure shows no influence because the political pressure of the regional head is directly related to organizational change.

A Theory of Action Account of an Across-School Collaboration Policy in Practice

Sinnema, C., Hannah, D., Finnerty, A., & Daly, A. (2022).  A theory of action account of an across-school collaboration policy in practice. Journal of Educational Change, 23(1), 33–60.

This paper explores the evolution of that journey, from the establishment of the Welsh Parliament in 1999 to late 2020, as Wales readies itself for the launch of a radical, new national curriculum. Drawing from a range of international literature and experience, the paper provides an overview of key policy developments and insight into the rationale for decisions taken by the Welsh Government to effect change. To do this, it separates reform into three core phases, each with its own characteristics borne out of landmark events that helped shape contemporary political and public discourse. In particular, the paper examines the impact of Wales' shifting approach to policy development on the teaching workforce and considers implications for those at the site of practice. The paper posits that a new, long-term approach to policy reform and teacher development is needed if Wales is to realize its ambitious vision for education.

Implementing Inclusive Education Policies – The Challenges of Organizational Change in a Danish Municipality

Ydesen, C. & Andersen, C. (2020). Implementing inclusive education policies – the challenges of organizational change in a Danish municipality. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 6(1), 69–78.

In 2012 the Danish Parliament passed legislation mandating that 96% of all students in compulsory public education attend regular classes. This target generally led to severe strains within local education authorities in Denmark. Civil servants, school principals, and teachers experienced inclusive education as a challenge rather than as an opportunity. In 2015 a municipality in Northern Jutland even decided to increase the target to 97% of all students. This article provides information about the process and challenges of how inclusive education policies were implemented and enacted between 2015 and 2019. Drawing on qualitative data, the article maps the discourse surrounding inclusive education and the organizational interactions between three levels of the local education authority: the political level, the civil servant level, and the local school level. The concluding discussion reports the findings and sheds light on the local challenges of organizational change in terms of inclusive education policies.