Skip to Main Content


Module 3 Resources

Ennis, R.H. (1989). Critical thinking and subject specificity: Clarification and needed research. Educational Researcher, 18, 4-10. Retrieved on 9-10-2022, from

  • This article posits that the meaning of critical thinking is often unclear and discussions of it are sometimes confusing and at cross-purposes. The author offers a number of distinctions, including a distinction among three versions of subject specificity: domain, epistemological, and conceptual.

Ghanizadeh, A. (2016, July 21). The interplay between reflective thinking, critical thinking, self-monitoring, and academic achievement in higher education. Higher Education, 74, 101-114.

  • This article assesses the associations among higher-order thinking skills (reflective thinking, critical thinking) and self-monitoring that contribute to academic achievement among university students. The study sample consisted of 196 Iranian university students (mean age= 22.05; SD= 3.06; 112 females; 75 males) who were administered three questionnaires.

Lipman, M. (1988). Critical thinking—What can it be? Educational Leadership, 45, 38-43.

  • This article stresses that if we are to foster and strengthen critical thinking in schools and colleges, we need a clear conception of what it is and what it can be. We need to know its outcomes, and the underlying conditions that make it possible.

Kuhn, D., & Dean, D. (2004). Metacognition: A bridge between cognitive psychology and educational practice, 43, 268-273.

  • This article questions the current method of teaching critical thinking skills that will prepare students to contribute to a democratic society. The authors posit that teachers would benefit from an understanding of the mechanisms involved in metacognition and how to foster it.

McMillan, J.H. (1987). Enhancing college student’s critical thinking: A review of studies: Research in Higher Education, 26, 3-29. This article examined twenty-seven studies that investigated the effect of instructional methods, courses, programs, and general college experiences on changes in college students’ critical thinking skills. The conclusion was that the use of specific instructional or course conditions to enhance critical thinking are not working.

  • Information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.

Strickland, G. (1991, April). Critical thinking: The importance of teaching. Retrieved on September 22, 2022, from

  • This article takes issue with tests that employ strictly multiple-choice, true-false, and fill-in-the-blank questions that do not assess critical thinking. The author posits that teachers should structure thought-provoking questions that challenge students to use critical thinking.