Seaman, J. E., Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2018). Grade increase: Tracking distance education in the United States . Babson Survey Research Group. This report is an excellent resource that provides information related to distance education in the United States. The trends found in the report show changes in the field of distance education, including excellent information about online learners.
Bonefeld, M., Dickhäuser, O., & Karst, K. (2020). Do preservice teachers’ judgments and judgment accuracy depend on students’ characteristics? The effect of gender and immigration background. Social Psychology Education, 23, 189–216. This article examines how student characteristics can influence teachers’ judgments. The authors feel putting aside a student’s actual performance, characteristics such as gender or immigration background may affect teachers’ judgments. This study examines the accuracy of preservice teachers within a virtual classroom. The study found student characteristics did make a difference. Teachers assessed student performance inaccurately based on characteristics unrelated to actual performance.
Flynn, E. (2016). Should at-risk students take online courses? College Student Journal, 50(1), 130–134. An interesting article that examines if the online learning environment is right for at-risk students in higher education. The authors found with essential learning supports and an understanding of the unique characteristics of at-risk students, they can be successful learning online. Descriptions and recommendations of effective online strategies and learning supports are included.
Simons, C., Metzger, S. R., & Sonnenschein, S. (2020). Children’s metacognitive knowledge of five key learning processes. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 6(1), 32–42. Whether learning online or face-to-face, Simons et al. (2020) feel success for schoolchildren requires skills such as paying attention, ignoring distractions, persevering on tasks, being organized, and planning their work. The problem is these learning processes are not typically taught to them at school. The authors were also unsure of how well children understood these skills. Simons et al. found children may be unaware of the behaviors needed to execute these important learning processes. The authors recommend educators provide explicit instruction and related strategies to help children build the skills they need to be successful when learning.
Peel, K. L. (2020). Everyday classroom teaching practices for self-regulated learning. Issues in Educational Research, 30(1), 260–282. Peel (2020) investigated traditional classroom learning experiences that provide opportunities for young adolescent students to self-regulate their learning. Using case study methodology, four themes emerged to describe teaching approaches. The study examines the connection between self-regulated learning and setting goals. Examples of practices influencing students’ self-regulation are included.
Thornburg, A. W., Abernathy, D. F., & Ceglie, R. J. (2020). Handbook of research on developing engaging online courses . IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-2132-8 Chapter 5: Lessons from the Other Side of the Computer: Student Perceptions of Effective Online Instruction
Chapter 5 examines current research, along with student vignettes exploring learners’ perceptions of the qualities and effectiveness of online instruction. It’s not only important to understand how to help instructors/teachers effectively teach online, but examining online learning from the learner’s perspective helps us see both sides of the learning interaction.
Thornburg, A. W., Abernathy, D. F., & Ceglie, R. J. (2020). Handbook of research on developing engaging online courses . IGI Global. doi:10.4018/978-1-7998-2132-8 Chapter 17: Using Universal Design for Learning (UDL) for Optimal Student Engagement in the Online College Classroom
In Chapter 17, the authors discuss supporting diversity in virtual classrooms by using the Universal Design for Learning framework. Through the use of this framework, it’s proposed that student engagement and faculty presence increase.
Chapter 18: Designing and Teaching for Student Engagement in Online Courses Through UDL
Chapter 18 continues the concept of using the Universal Design for Learning framework. Guidelines are recommended to follow when considering the needs of all learners. The authors feel learning engagement must be not only carefully considered but planned for throughout all learning modules.
Stone, C., & Springer, M. (2019). Interactivity, connectedness and “teacher-presence”: Engaging and retaining students online. Australian Journal of Adult Learning, 59(2), 146–169. Stone and Springer found as the number of online students increased, their retention and completion rates were 20% lower than in traditional, face-to-face programs. Based on the findings of this research, the authors make several important recommendations for institutions, students, and instructors to support student outcomes and increase retention and completion numbers.
Ruthotto, I., Kreth, Q., Stevens, J., Trively, C., & Melkers, J. (2020, July). Lurking and participation in the virtual classroom: The effects of gender, race, and age among graduate students in computer science. Computers & Education, 151. There are challenges associated with assessing participation in online learning environments. The virtual classroom is already at a transactional distance since students and instructors are physically separated. Currently, a large component of online participation and engagement is seen through discussion board communication and interaction. The authors examined such concepts as the extent students participate in online discussion boards, patterns of engagement, and type and intensity of online participation, taking into consideration student demographics and course setting. It was found that participation does vary by diverse demographic characteristics such as age and race/ethnicity, but not by gender. Class size and lurking behavior are also examined.
Borup, J., Graham, C. R., & Drysdale, J. S. (2014). The nature of teacher engagement at an online high school. British Journal of Educational Technology, 45(5), 793. This article examines the components of teacher’s roles when teaching in an online high school. Based on their findings, the authors make recommendations on the aspects of roles that support teacher presence and online learners.
Struyven, F. K., Vantieghem, W., & Gheyssens, E. (2020). Exploring the interrelationship between universal design for learning (UDL) and differentiated instruction (DI): A systematic review. Education Research Review, 29 . This article examines the types of interrelationships between the universal design model for learning, and differentiated instruction model. There is a complementary interrelationship between them; an embedded relationship and an incompatible interrelationship. The value of this article is their review of both learning models and a description of the interrelationships between them.
Abacioglu, C. S., Zee, M., Hanna, F., Soeterik, I. M., Fischer, A. H., Volman, M. (2019). Practice what you preach: The moderating role of teacher attitudes on the relationship between prejudice reduction and student engagement. Teaching and Teacher Education, 86 . Abacioglu et al. (2019) investigated the relationship between teachers’ prejudice reduction practices and student engagement. They found a positive relationship when teachers practiced prejudice reduction, finding increases in student engagement. They feel when instructors “walk the talk,” they can not only promote multiculturalism but improve the learning environment.
Kebble, P. G. (2017). Assessing online asynchronous communication strategies designed to enhance large student cohort engagement and foster a community of learning. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(8), 92-100. doi:10.11114/jets.v5i8.2539 Paul Kebble proposes that students can experience a sense of physical remoteness, which can lead to reduced academic performance and a decrease in retention. This article explores strategies that may strengthen students learning experiences and enhance learner engagement. It also examined supporting practices that promote a sense of inclusion as well as improve interactions within the online learning environment. A list of recommended strategies is included that may nurture a community of learning and facilitate engagement with others.
Simándi, S. (2018). Lifelong learning and web 2.0 tools: Online study circles for supporting active learning and citizenship. Pedagogy Studies / Pedagogika, 131(3), 67–82. This study examines a population of adult learners who cannot meet in person and wish to study a topic of interest within a community. By using SWOT analysis, the author studied online study circles and examined participant-centered methods to be used in study circles. The author found the use of Web 2.0 tools had a positive effect on adult learning, and the most common method of Internet use when visiting community sites is through a smartphone.
Lakhal, S., Mukamurera, J., Bédard, M., Heilporn, G., & Mélodie Chauret. (2020). Features fostering academic and social integration in blended synchronous courses in graduate programs. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 17(1), 1–22. This study examines features that foster academic and social integration of students enrolled in a blended synchronous course. Sawsen et al. discovered there are many features to promote academic and social integration. The study highlights challenges associated with the use of a blended synchronous learning environment.
Sujatha, R., & Kavitha, D. (2018). Learner retention in MOOC environment: Analyzing the role of motivation, self-efficacy and perceived effectiveness. International Journal of Education & Development Using Information & Communication Technology, 14 (2), 62–74. The authors examine massive open online courses (MOOC) as an online educational opportunity. There are many challenges associated with learning through the use of MOOCs, such as low completion rates and low learner motivation. Students using MOOCs for learning are expected to use self-regulating behaviors. Therefore, the need for high learner motivation is essential. Sujatha and Kavitha analyze the role of motivation, self-efficacy, and perceived effectiveness in supporting retention. The study discusses learner intent and design strategies that can help to make learning a more personalized experience.
Center for Teaching and Learning. (2018). Tagging in the Commons. Northcentral University. This job aid will help you to learn how to tag someone in the Commons. This week’s assignment requires that you tag your professor in your introductory post.
Costley, J. (2016). The effects of instructor control on critical thinking and social presence: Variations within three online asynchronous learning environments. Journal of Educators Online, 13(1). Teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence are three factors that interact in online learning. The researchers examine how these three factors interact when communicating online as it relates to instructor control. Findings indicate increasing instructor control in an online learning environment strengthens cognitive presence but decreases social presence. It’s important to understand how to manipulate learner discourse to support effective discussions online.
Jacobi, L. (2017). The structure of discussions in an online communication course: What do students find most effective? Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 14(1), 1–16. This study explores the perspectives of online learners regarding effective ways of communicating using asynchronous discussions. The authors identify several significant factors that support online student success. Findings from this research help educators structure online discussions.
Kear, K. (2010). Online and social networking communities: A best practice guide for educators . Taylor & Francis Group. Read Chapter 8: Assessment for Learning in Online Communities.
Chapter 8 offers an overview of a variety of assessment methods for online learners. Individual and collaborative assessments are discussed. Also included is a discussion on fairly assessing online group projects.
Shute, V. J., & Rahimi, S. (2017) Review of computer‐based assessment for learning in elementary and secondary education. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 33 : 1– 19. doi: 10.1111/jcal.12172. Computer-based assessment targeted at elementary and secondary education is reviewed. Summative and formative assessments are discussed. Shute and Rahimi found that the use of the computer-based assessment tool benefited learning and provide opportunities for feedback. They feel this tool supports personalized learning and the assessment of complex competencies.
Donnelli-Sallee, E. (2018). Supporting online teaching effectiveness at scale: Achieving efficiency and effectiveness through peer review. Journal of Educators Online, 15(3). This article examines a peer review model as an assessment tool for online, hybrid, and face-to-face courses. The peer-review model includes opportunities for community building and self-reflection.
Simpson-Beck, V. (Host). (2015). Testing a model to predict online cheating [Video]. SAGE Video. This video (13:25 min) discusses research that Simpson-Beck has done examining if cheating is more prevalent in online courses. Academic dishonesty is an important concept to be aware of as you develop your assessments for online learning courses.
Gachago, D., Morkel, J., Hitge, L., Zyl, I., & Ivala, E. (2017). Developing eLearning champions: A design thinking approach. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 14(1), 1–14. This study focuses on those considered e-learning champions. The authors propose that educators who develop online learning courses and activities as well as teach online should display shared dispositions of a “design thinking mindset.” These dispositions consist of collaboration, empathy for learners, and problem orientation. The authors propose academic, professional development interventions related to online teaching and learning should support educators in acquiring a design thinking mindset.
Hode, M. G., Behm-Morawitz, E., & Hays, A. (2018). Testing the effectiveness of an online diversity course for faculty and staff. Journal of Diversity In Higher Education, 11(3), 347–365. Cultural competence is an essential skill needed by online faculty to work effectively with diverse students. Additionally, in order to prepare students to participate in a diverse, global workforce, faculty must be able to provide meaningful in-depth diversity and inclusion education. This article examines the effectiveness of an online professional development course to support the development of faculty and staff cultural competence.
Olesova, L., & Campbell, S. (2019). The impact of the cooperative mentorship model on faculty preparedness to develop online courses. Online Learning, 23(4), 192–213. Currently, in higher education offering online programs, instructional designers are underutilized. Their role in education is not clear. Using a cooperative mentorship model builds relationships between faculty and instructional designers and has been found to be highly effective, producing many benefits.
Linder, K.E. (2017, March 15). Training faculty to teach in hybrid settings. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, 2017 (149), 47-58. doi:10.1002/tl.20226 The author shares experiences regarding the development and implementation of a hybrid course design institute. The article outlines the components of the training, covering both andragogical and technological concepts.
Camus, M., Hurt, N. E., Larson, L. R., & Prevost, L. (2016). Facebook as an online teaching tool: Effects on student participation, learning, and overall course performance. (cover story). College Teaching, 64(2), 84–94. A valuable tool for encouraging student engagement and promoting interaction with course materials is the use of online discussions. Camus et al feel strategies for conducting online discussions vary and may not be as effective. Facebook, a social media platform can provide a variety of social benefits to students as well as represent a viable mechanism for educational teaching and learning.
Films Media Group (Producer). (2018). Stuart Duncan - how I use Minecraft to help kids with autism [Video]. Films on Demand. This is a must-watch video! For some people, the Internet can be an ugly place. AutCraft is a safe online environment for children who may behave a bit differently than their peers. AutCraft is an example of a safe learning environment where children can acquire social and group skills important to their development.