**Academic Success Center (ASC). (2020). Research questions. National University.****This page from the ASC Statistical Resources uses video, handouts, and text to reinforce your understanding or research questions, which you will need to compose as part of your Signature Assignment.****Quantitative research methods****Leung, J. T., & Shek, D. T. (2018). Quantitative research methods. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1349-1352). SAGE.**

This section describes the concepts of quantitative methods. These are methods that are used to collect and analyze data.

**Supplemental Resources**

**Type I error****Hannon, B. (2018). Type I error. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1741-1743). SAGE.**

Type I error in hypothesis testing occurs when the null hypothesis is equivocally rejected. In other words, assuming that significant differences exist, when in fact they don’t exist.**Significance****Harlow, L. (2018). Significance. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1514-1516). SAGE.**

The author of these pages presents the concept of significance in statistics. Significance indicates the probability of an event (e.g., the difference between two groups) happening by chance—or that true differences exist.**Alpha level.****Kim, H. W. (2018). Alpha level. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 65-66). SAGE.**

As you learned from this resource in a previous week, the alpha level is chosen by a researcher and is used to compare it to the*p*- value. This chapter defines and discusses the concepts related to the alpha level.*p*value**Kim, H. W. (2018). p Value. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 1195-1198). SAGE.**

The p - value is the probability value that is used in conjunction with the concept of significance. This chapter discusses the different uses of the p - value.**Type II error.****Liu, X.S. (2018). Type II error. In B. B. Frey (Ed.),***The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation*(pp. 1743-1745). SAGE.

As you learned from this resource in a previous week, Type II error in hypothesis testing occurs when the null hypothesis is equivocally not rejected—in other words, assuming that significant differences do not exist, when they do in fact exist.

**Inferential statistics.****Seaman, M. (2018). Inferential statistics. In B. B. Frey (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational research, measurement, and evaluation (pp. 819-820). SAGE. <.br> This source discusses the importance of inferential statistics and how they are applied to the analysis of observed data from a sample. Furthermore, how the results of the observed data can be applied to make inferences to the general population.****Academic Success Center (ASC). (2020).***Statistics resources*. National University.**This LibGuide includes all of the statistics resources curated by NU's Academic Success Center. Use the headings on the left side of this ASC page to navigate to your particular area of need.****Presenting Statistics in Text****This page from the ASC offers support on how to use appropriately the different elements of statistics within text that you write.**

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