Skip to Main Content


Module 3 Required Resources


  • In the Flanagan & Alfonso text read the chapters:   
    • Chapter 11 -- Dual Discrepancy/Consistency Operational Definition of SLD: Integrating Multiple Data Sources and Multiple Data-Gathering Methods (pp. 329-430)  
      • Chapter 11 provides an overview of the psychological processing areas that are the foundation for academic success. The chapter includes exclusionary factors for Specific Learning Disabilities and focuses on the process of assessment while incorporating the PASS Theory. 
    • Chapter 14 -- Difference or Disorder: Assessment of SLD with an English Learner (pp. 505-548)  
      • Chapter 14 includes information to assist the reader in understanding the role cultural and linguistic differences play in assessing and addressing learning disabilities. A large population of school-aged children has a language other than English as their primary or first language. In the past, some children have been identified as having learning disabilities when the reason the student had performance challenges were related to cultural and linguistic differences. It is important to understand the contrast between disabilities and differences. Having cultural or linguistic differences is not a disability and should not be identified as such. This chapter explores ways to assess children with cultural and linguistic differences appropriately.