# Statistics Resources

This guide contains all of the ASC's statistics resources. If you do not see a topic, suggest it through the suggestion box on the Statistics home page.

## Test for Association

This Chi-Square test is used to determine if there's a relationship between two categorical variables. Think of this as a non-parametric version of a correlation analysis. It can also be called the Test for Independence.

Assumptions

1. Both variables must be nominal or ordinal.
2. Each variable must have at least 2 independent groups.

Running Chi-Square Test of Association in SPSS - Method 1

NOTE: these steps are for raw data, not summated frequencies (two-way table)

1. Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs
2. Move one variable into the "Row(s)" box and the other variable into the "Column(s)" box
• variable designation is up to the researcher
3. Click on the "Statistics" button to select additional statistics to include with the output
• ensure "Chi-square" is checked
4. Click on the "Cells" button
• ensured Observed, Row, Column, and Total boxes are all checked
• click the "Continue" button to return to the main dialog box
5. Click OK to run the test

Running Chi-Square Test of Association in SPSS - Method 2

NOTE: these steps are for summated frequencies (two-way table), not raw data

1. Ensure you have 3 "variables" created so that all cells from the table are represented
• Categorical variable 1 - enter this data so that each entry appears once per number of categories in variable 2
• ie - A, A, A, B, B, B, C, C, C - if there are 3 levels to the other variable
• Categorical variable 2 - enter this data so that each level is paired with each level of variable 1
• ie - 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3 - so reading across the rows shows A1, A2, A3, etc.
• Frequency - enter the number of people in each cell
• ie. How many people were in group A and group 1?
2. Data > Weight Cases
• Select "Weight cases by" radio button
• move the Frequency variable into the box
3. Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs
4. Move one variable into the "Row(s)" box and the other variable into the "Column(s)" box
• variable designation is up to the researcher
5. Click on the "Statistics" button to select additional statistics to include with the output
• ensure "Chi-square" is checked
6. Click OK to run the test

Interpreting the Output

• [variable]*[variable] Crosstabulation (the variable names will reflect the variables you entered for analysis)
• This table presents the counts (and percentages if selected) for each cell
• Chi-Square Tests
• provides the results of the chi-square test
• used to make a decision about the null hypothesis
• Symmetric Measures (if selected)
• this table provides measures of association and their significance

Reporting Results in APA Style

A chi-square test of association was conducted to determine if there is a relationship between gender and swimming abilities. There was sufficient evidence to suggest that women are more likely to swim than men, X^2(1, = 101) = 8.8, p < .05.