Learn how to use abbreviations, including how to introduce them and how to use Latin and scientific abbreviations.
© 2021 American Psychological Association.
Overview of Abbreviation Guidelines
1) Before using an abbreviation, include the full spelling of the phrase followed by the abbreviation in parenthesis.
Abbreviation with an in-text citation:
Abbreviation in Text:
2) If an abbreviation is listed in the dictionary and the listing is not labeled "abbr," it can be used in the text without a definition.
3) Except for units of measurement, abbreviations can be written as both singular or plural abbreviations.
4) Some abbreviations should include periods.