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APA Style

This guide contains tips for how to maximize your Academic Writer experience plus additional resources to assist with APA style.

Note: While the APA manual and Academic Writer provides many examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not provide rules on how to cite all types of sources. Therefore, if you have a source that APA does not include, APA suggests that you find the example that is most similar to your source and use that format.

To access the tutorial and samples in full-screen mode, you will need to sign into both NU and Academic WriterHere are instructions for creating an account if you have not already.

Sample References

Use the Sample References tab under "Learn" in Academic Writer to view 202 sample references. Below you will sample references for some of the most common mediums (book, journal article, website).


DOI Information

When using Academic Writer to generate a reference, remove the proxy information from the reference as highlighted below.

Incorrect DOI

  • Ambrose, A. (1963). The age of onset of ambivalence in early infancy: Indications from the study of laughing. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 4(3–4), 167–181. https://doi-org.proxy1.ncu.edu/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1963.tb02119.x

Corrected DOI

  • Ambrose, A. (1963). The age of onset of ambivalence in early infancy: Indications from the study of laughing. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 4(3–4), 167–181. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1963.tb02119.x


Please Note: It is acceptable to use either the default display setting (blue hyperlinks) or plain text (without underlining) when formatting DOIs and URLs in reference lists.

  • DOIs should only include the information for the source. 

Formatting References

  • Reference list entries should be aligned flush left, double space, and a hanging indent should be used after the first line of the individual reference. 

Formatting References Example

Formatted reference


 

AI Models (ChatGPT)

Steps to reference OpenAI generated text such as ChatGPT.

  • Author: OpenAI
  • Date: Year for the version you are using.
  • Title: Name of the model.
    • Version Number: Place in parentheses. Use the version format the author provides.
    •  Bracketed Text: If needed- Additional description language. 
  • Source: URL for the source.

Reference Example 

Open AI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat

*Additional information is available on the How to Cite ChatGPT page of the APA Style Blog.


 

Audiovisual Material

Interview recording

de Beauvoir, S. (1960, May 4). Simone de Beauvoir discusses the art of writing [Interview]. Studs Terkel Radio Archive; The Chicago History Museum. https://studsterkel.wfmt.com/programs/simone-de-beauvoir-discusses-art-writing

Movie, film, or video

Altman, R. (Director). (2001). Gosford park [Film]. USA Films; Capitol Films; The Film Council; Sandcastle 5 Productions; Chicagofilms; Medusa Film.

Newman, C. F. (Guest Expert), & Arpana, G. I. (Host). (2016). Cognitive–behavioral therapy supervision [Film; educational DVD]. American Psychological Association. https://www-apa-org/pubs/videos/4310957.aspx

Photograph

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg

Bao, Y. (2019). This rare image of a Tibetan fox and a marmot in the moment before attack won Chinese photographer Yongqing Bao the top distinction of Wildlife Photographer of the Year [Photograph]. National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/2019/10/wildlife-photographer-of-the-year-2019/#/01-wildlife-awards-yongqing-bao---wildlife-photographer-of-the-year.jpg

Podcast, entire (audio)

Schreiber, D., Harkin, J., Murray, A. H., & Ptaszynski, A. (Hosts). (2014–present). No such thing as a fish [Audio podcast]. Quite Interesting. https://www.nosuchthingasafish.com/

YouTube video and other streaming videos

Pinkfong. (2016, June 17). Baby shark dance | sing and dance! | animals songs | Pinkfong songs for children [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XqZsoesa55w

American Psychological Association. (2015, September 14). Babies are teachers, too [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r8wKsJWwaSc

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/244405542

 


Books

Authored book without DOI (print version or full text accessed via a research database)

Dery, M. (2018). Born to be posthumous: The eccentric life and mysterious genius of Edward Gory. Little, Brown and Company.

Authored book with DOI

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org /10.1037/0000165-000

Elkins, D. N. (2016). The human elements of psychotherapy: A nonmedical model of emotional healing. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org /10.1037/14751-000

One volume of a multivolume work

Fiske, S. T., Gilbert, D. T., & Lindzey, G. (2010). Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., Vol. 1). John Wiley & Sons. https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470561119


Book Chapter

Chapter in an edited book with DOI

Giussani, D. A. (2006). Prenatal hypoxia: Relevance to developmental origins of health and disease. In P. Gluckman & M. Hanson (Eds.), Developmental origins of health and disease (pp. 178–190). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511544699.013

Work in an anthology

Gaitskill, M. (2008). The girl on the plane. In J. C. Oates & C. R. Beha (Eds.), The Ecco anthology of contemporary American short fiction (pp. 325–342). Ecco. (Original work published 1997).


Conference Presentation

Paper presentation or poster session

Wimberley, T., & Stasio, M. (2012, February). Perfectionism: Relationships among personal standards, evaluative concerns and automatic thoughts [Paper presentation]. Southeastern Psychological Association 58th annual meeting, New Orleans, LA, United States. http://www.sepaonline.com/conference/2012/2012_annual-meeting-schedule.pdf

Symposium contribution

De Boer, D., & LaFavor, T. (2018, April 26–29). The art and significance of successfully identifying resilient individuals: A person-focused approach. In A. M. Schmidt & A. Kryvanos (Chairs), Perspectives on resilience: Conceptualization, measurement, and enhancement [Symposium]. Western Psychological Association 98th Annual Convention, Portland, OR, United States.


Course or Supplemental Material 

Authored material in a classroom course pack

MacGyver, A. (2014). Five steps to repelling an attack by killer bees. In R. D. Anderson (Ed.), Selected readings in survival, escape, and evasion (pp. 31–34). St. Ambrose University.

Lecture notes

Palmer, W. (2019, November 20). Lecture 5: Training variations and considerations [Lecture notes]. Department of Business Administration, Morgan State University. https://www.morgan.edu/palmerw/spring2018/ba1.html

Acharya, I. (2020, January 5). [Lecture notes on haptic perceptions]. Department of Psychology, Towson University. https://towson.edu/psychology/acharyai/

 

PowerPoint slides

Neghina, C. (2009, July 5). Advertising psychology [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/preciousssa/advertising-psychology-1684533

Supplemental material in a classroom course pack

"Varroa mite blues" and other songs of the honey bee [Supplemental material]. (2012). In B. Haave (Ed.), NEU 451: Movement and perception (pp. 44–45). St. Ambrose University.

Unattributed material in a classroom course pack

Diagram of the tibia–basitarsis joint in Apis melifera. (2015). In B. Haave (Ed.), NEU 451: Movement and perception (pp. 44–45). St. Ambrose University.


Data Set

Data set

D’Souza, A., & Wiseheart, M. (2018). Cognitive effects of music and dance training in children (ICPSR 37080; Version V1) [Data set]. ICPSR. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37080.v1

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2013). Treatment episode data set -- discharges (TEDS-D) -- concatenated, 2006 to 2009 [Data set]. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR30122.v2


Dissertations

Dissertation, from a database

Holderle, D. A. (2018). Exploring archetypal reality in the experience of hallucinations across cultures (Publication No. 10837529) [Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute]. PQDT Open.


Gray Literature

Brochure

California Board of Psychology. (2005). For your peace of mind: A consumer guide to psychological services [Brochure]. https://www.psychology.ca.gov/forms_pubs/consumer_guide.pdf

Code of ethics

American Psychological Association. (2017). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct (2002, amended effective June 1, 2010, and January 1, 2017). https://www-apa-org/ethics/code/index.aspx

National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. https://www.socialworkers.org/pubs/code/default.asp

American Nurses Association. (2015). Code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. https://www.nursingworld.org/coe-view-only

Policy brief

Gregoire, C. (2011). Accelerating the learning curve by building a student-centered education system [Policy brief]. Washington State Archives - Digital Archives. https://www.digitalarchives.wa.gov/GovernorGregoire/priorities/budget/p20_system.pdf

Harwell, M. (2018). Don’t expect too much: The limited usefulness of common SES measures and a prescription for change [Policy brief]. National Education Policy Center. https://nepc.colorado.edu/publication/SES

 

Journal Articles

Journal article with DOI

Ambrose, A. (1963). The age of onset of ambivalence in early infancy: Indications from the study of laughing. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 4(3–4), 167–181. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1963.tb02119.x

Ambrose, A. F., Paul, G., & Hausdorff, J. M. (2013). Risk factors for falls among older adults: A review of the literature. Maturitas, 75(1), 51–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.02.009

Journal article without DOI (accessed in an academic research database)

Alexander, A. (1985). The great escape: Soap opera viewing by college students. College Student Journal, 19(2), 141–143.

Gill, C. S., Barrio Minton, C. A., & Myers, J. E. (2010). Spirituality and religiosity: Factors affecting wellness among low-income, rural women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(3), 293–302.

Journal article without DOI (accessed on a website, with a nondatabase URL)

Ahmann, E., Tuttle, L. J., Saviet, M., & Wright, S. D. (2018). A descriptive review of ADHD coaching research: Implications for college students. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 31(1), 17–39. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/jped/archived-jped/jped-volume-31

Journal article without DOI (print)

Alexander, A. (1985). The great escape: Soap opera viewing by college students. College Student Journal, 19(2), 141–143.

Gill, C. S., Barrio Minton, C. A., & Myers, J. E. (2010). Spirituality and religiosity: Factors affecting wellness among low-income, rural women. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(3), 293–302.

 

Legal References - APA

Federal regulation, codified

Protection of Human Subjects, 45 C.F.R. § 46 (2009). https://www.hhs.gov/ohrp/sites/default/files/ohrp/policy/ohrpregulations.pdf

Federal statute, codified in the United States Code

Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. § 12101 et seq. (1990). https://www.ada.gov/pubs/adastatute08.htm

Every Student Succeeds Act, 20 U.S.C. § 6301 (2015). https://www.congress.gov/114/plaws/publ95/PLAW-114publ95.pdf

Patsy Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, 20 U.S.C. § 1681 et seq. (1972). https://www.justice.gov/crt/title-ix-education-amendments-1972

 

MOOC 

Childs, P. (n.d.). Creative thinking: Techniques and tools for success [MOOC]. Coursera. https://www.coursera.org/learn/creative-thinking-techniques-and-tools-for-success

Tangen, J. (2016). Episode 2: I heard a tapping somewhat louder than before [MOOC lecture]. In E. MacKenzie, J. Tangen, & M. Thompson, The science of everyday thinking. edX. https://www.edx.org/course/the-science-of-everyday-thinking

 

OER

Burkins, J. M., & Yates, K. (2021). Rethinking how reading comprehension begins: Overlooking the role of listening comprehension in reading comprehension. OER Commons. Retrieved June 7, 2024, from  https://oercommons.s3.amazonaws.com/media/courseware/relatedresource/file/Shift_1-Emergent_Literacy_1_uHs8Xco.pdf

 

Reference Work

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349

Entry in an online dictionary, unarchived link

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Positive transference. In APA dictionary of psychology. Retrieved August 31, 2019, from https://dictionary-apa-org/positivetransference

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Self-report. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report

 

Report

Annual report

American Psychological Association. (2013). 2012 annual report of the American Psychological Association. https://www-apa.org/pubs/info/reports/2012-report.pdf

Women's Storybook Project of Texas. (2019). 2018 annual report. https://storybookproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/WSP-Annual-Report-2018_71.pdf

Report by a government agency

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health. https://www-nhlbi-nih-gov/files/docs/resources/lung/asth_sch.pdf

 

Software

Computer software

Borenstein, M., Hedges, L., Higgins, J., & Rothstein, H. (2014). Comprehensive metaanalysis (Version 3.3.070) [Computer software]. Biostat. https://www.meta-analysis.com/

 

Tests, Scales, and Inventories

Database record for a test

Yu, C. K.-C. (2008). Dream Intensity Inventory [Database record]. APA PsycTests. https://doi.org/10.1037/t54321-001

Cardoza, D., Morris, J. K., Myers, H. F., & Rodriguez, N. (2000). Acculturative Stress Inventory (ASI) (TC022704) [Database record]. ETS TestLink.

Test, scale, or inventory, individual authors

Friedlander, M. L., Escudero, V., & Heatherington, L. (2002). SOFTA-o. SOFTA. http://softa-soatif.com/instrumentos-2-2

 

Website

Webpage on a news website

Bologna, C. (2019, October 31). Why some people with anxiety love watching horror movies. HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/anxiety-love-watching-horror-movies_l_5d277587e4b02a5a5d57b59e

LaMotte, S. (2018, October 25). Stress might lead to memory loss and brain shrinkage, study says. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2018/10/24/health/stress-memory-loss-under-50-study/index.html

Webpage on a website, retrieval date included in the reference

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved November 13, 2019, from https://www.census.gov/popclock/

Webpage, group author, dated and undated

ACT Raising Safe Kids Program. (n.d.). About the ACT raising safe kids program. American Psychological Association. https://www-apa-org/act/about/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, January 23). Flu vaccines work. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/disease/high_risk.htm

Webpage, individual author, dated

Hall-Flavin, D. K. (2016). What is passive-aggressive behavior? What are some of the signs? Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/adult-health/expert-answers/passive-aggressive-behavior/faq-20057901

O'Hara, D. (2019, November 14). Study of human intelligence at center of Michael Gardner’s career. American Psychological Association. https://www-apa-org/members/content/gardner-human-intelligence

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